BLACK HOLE THEORY THE POINT OF NO RETURN SHUBHAM SINGH TCET
Space is a pretty dark place. Even so, some areas are darker than others but nothing is darker than Black Hole, It is a great amount of matter packed into a very small area.
If you have any kind of confusion with this definition, imagine a star ten
times more massive than the Sun squeezed into a sphere approximately of the diameter of Mumbai city.
The result will be the formation of a black hole with a gravitational field so
strong that nothing, not even light can escape from it.
HOW DO BLACK HOLES FORM?
A simple answer is: the end of one star is the beginning of a black hole. The idea of an object in the vast space so massive & dense that light could not escape from it is of great interest to the scientists.
Many scientists proposed their theories about black holes but most famously Einstein’s theory of General Relativity which showed that when a massive star dies, it leaves behind a remnant core which is small and dense.
Most black holes form from the remnants of a large star that died in a supernova (smaller stars become a neutron star, which is not massive enough to trap light). If the total mass of a star is large enough, it is proven theoretically that no force can keep the star from collapsing under the influence of gravity.
However, as the star collapses a strange thing occurs near the surface of the star.
Basically, there are two parts of the black hole:
The Event Horizon is the point of no return around the black hole. It is not exactly a physical surface but an imaginary sphere surrounding a point of greater density (Black Hole) which marks where the escape velocity is equal to the speed of light.
Its radius is given by Schwarzschild Radius. Any object that is smaller than its Schwarzschild radius is a black hole.
Once matter enters inside the event horizon it would continue to fall to the center. With such an immense gravity, the matter would squish o a point or a very tiny, tiny volume with a crazy big density.
That is the point which we call Singularity.
Singularity is the center of a black hole which is a one-dimensional point with a huge mass in an infinitely small space, where gravity and density become infinite and space-time graph becomes infinite.
Where the Laws of Physics as we know them to cease to operate.According to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis, a black hole’s singularity remains hidden behind its event horizon, it is surrounded by an area that doesn’t allow light to escape, and therefore cannot be directly observed.
HAVE YOU EVER THOUGHT, IF LIGHT CANNOT ESCAPE FROM A BLACK HOLE, THEN HOW SCIENTISTS OBSERVE THEM?
Astronomers and scientists don’t see a black hole directly. Instead, they observe the presence of a black hole by its effect on the surrounding. A black hole by itself out in the middle of the galaxy would be very difficult to detect. ‘
Studying black holes relies heavily on indirect detection. The effect on other mass by a black hole can be concluded as materials getting pulled inside the black hole, accretion disks forming around the black hole or stars orbiting a massive but unseen object.
TYPES OF BLACK HOLES
Traditionally it is of two types: One whose masses are about 5-20 times that of the Sun which is called Stellar-mass black hole and those with masses millionth & billionth times that of the Sun are called Supermassive black holes.
Stellar-mass black holes are formed when a massive star runs out of fuel and collapses. They are found scattered throughout the galaxy in the same place where we find stars since they began their lives as stars.
A supermassive black hole is found at the center of nearly every large galaxy. Exactly how a supermassive blackhole is found at the center of nearly every large galaxy.
Exactly how a supermassive black hole is formed is an active area of research for astronomers.
IS IT POSSIBLE FOR ANYTHING TO ESCAPE FROM A BLACK HOLE?
Well, currently it is found that nothing can escape from the pull of black hole once it passes the event horizon.
However, it is interesting to know about the special events taking place near the event horizon. Time travel is currently not possible for any living being but it is possible near a black hole.
If we have two observers with two identical clocks. Let clock1 and observer1 be near the black hole and clock2 and observer2 be far away
from the black hole.
Then the time passing in clock1 will be slower than clock2 due to the high gravitational pull of the black hole. That is observer2 will observe that observer1 is moving very slowly than him. Although it is a relative statement between observers.
None of them will observe a difference in their own respective observation frames. Their local individual time experience will be normal.
There is the point where observer1 will seem to have totally stopped for an infinite time to observer2. This is nothing but the event horizon.
However, observer1 will not notice any of these effects as they cross the horizon. Observer1 will not really be going to know when exactly he crossed the horizon. In this manner, a black hole affects the time. In short, gravity wraps the time.
Currently, scientists are observing and studying the black hole. What happens at the singularity? This is the major question currently. The black hole is still a mystery for us. Maybe one day exploration of the black hole will be possible for humans.
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