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We always come at a point where we feel we know everything but then we discover something which introduces doubts to our theories and one of
trending such discovery is the ghost particle.

We have all heard somewhere or the other about the god particle but, have you ever heard about the ghost particle? So the neutrinos are called as ghost particles.

They are particles in the universe which are much smaller than the fundamental particles. Now, to understand the fundamental particle, you
must first know that our universe is made up of particles and fields.

The particles which are responsible for matter are called as fermions, and
the particles which are responsible for the forces in nature are called as bosons.

The interesting thing to know about bosons is, it is named after an
Indian scientist Satyendra Nath Bose. Fermions are further divided into quarks and leptons.

Quarks are of 6 types which are divided based on its spin, mass and charge. These are called as flavors. And leptons are half integer spin particles which never take part in strong interactions.

The fun thing to know about quarks is they cannot be observed alone! They are always found in combined forms called as hadrons. The most stable hadron we know is the neutron-proton pair.

The proton consists of one up and two down quark , while a proton consists of two up and one down quark. Leptons can be observed alone, these particles with which the universe is made are called elementary particles.

The ghost particle (neutrinos) are smaller than these fundamental particles. You can imagine it by the famous scene in the movie ant-man where he becomes smaller than fundamental particles and enter a state called as quantum realm, but again all this is highly fictious.

Neutrinos fall in the category of leptons. Leptons are further divided into electrons, muons and tau. Further the neutrinos are also of three types depending on the parent particle for example electron decay will give electron neutrino and similarly muon neutrino and tau neutrino.

They are based on the interaction with w particles. One interesting fact is few years back opera particle detector in Italy found that the speed of neutrinos was greater than the speed of light.

This was the most crucial phase in scientific community because this would disapprove Einstein special theory of relativity which states that there cannot exist any wave or particle having speed greater than light because the photons have zero relativistic mass and hence their calculated speed is what we know 2.99*10^8 m/s.

But then, many experiments were carried in different labs and then it was found that the researchers at opera detector had done calculation mistake. The speed of neutrinos is actually less than the speed of light. Even today, Indians are doing lot of research on neutrinos.

Even we have our own observatory called Indian neutrino observatory situated in Madurai. Hence, I conclude by saying that even one day we will learn more about this particle and I hope that India will be first to come up with groundbreaking results.

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