Languages in India

India, a union of states, is a sovereign, secular, democratic, republic with a parliamentary system of government. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union.In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive.

The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. India, one of the most diverse nations in the world, is divided into 29 states and 9 union territories for administrative purposes. The tradition, culture, art, language, and food vary from state to state and are unique to each region. Part XVII of the Indian constitution deals with the official languages in articles 343 to 351.

The Constitution does not specify the official language of different states. As per 2018, the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution specifies 22 languages (originally 14 languages).

The following is a glimpse into all the 29 states of India and their capitals. In this blog, we will discuss the List of Indian States and its Official Languages.


The list of some of the Indian languages includes:

  • Sanskrit
  • Hindi
  • English
  • Gujarati – Language of Gujarat and Union Territories of Dadar and Nagar Haveli
  • Punjabi – The official language of Punjab
  • Bengali- The state language of West Bengal
  • Assamese – Official language of Assam
  • Dogri, Urdu – The language of Jammu and Kashmir
  • Oriya – The state language of state of Odisha
  • Marathi – Language of Maharashtra
  • Kannada – The official language of Karnataka
  • Tamil – The state language of Tamil Nadu
  • Telugu – It is the official language of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Malayalam – It is the official language of Kerala
  • Sindhi
  • Konkani – The state language of Goa
  • Manipuri – The official language of Manipur
  • Khasi – The official language of Meghalaya
  • Mizo – The official language of Mizoram
  • English – The official language of Nagaland

As per Articles 344(1) and 351 of the Indian Constitution, the eighth schedule includes the recognition of the following 22 languages:

  • Assamese
  • Bengali
  • Bodo
  • Dogri
  • Gujarati
  • Hindi
  • Kannada
  • Kashmiri
  • Konkani
  • Maithili
  • Malayalam
  • Manipuri
  • Marathi
  • Nepali
  • Odia
  • Punjabi
  • Sanskrit
  • Santali
  • Sindhi
  • Tamil
  • Telugu
  • Urdu

Besides these, there are other languages, which are spoken by large masses but have still not acquired the status of Scheduled Languages of India. These languages spoken by regional people are known as regional languages of India. These include Rajasthani, Haryanvi, Bhili, Gondi and Tulu among others.

Some Indian languages are not widely spoken and have been given the status of minority languages. Mahl and Portuguese languages come under this category.

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