STUDY OF ANTENNA
What is antenna?
An Antenna is a structure affiliated with the region of transition between the “guided wave” and “free space”. Antennas are basic components of any electrical circuit as they provide interconnecting links between transmitter and free space or between free space and receiver.
Different Types Of Antenna
A Dipole Antenna is made up two conductors in the same axis and the length of the wire need to be small compared to the wavelength. A dipole antenna is an antenna with a center-fed driven element for transmitting or receiving radio frequency energy. From a physics viewpoint, this type of antenna is the simplest practical antenna. It consists of a straight electric conductor, made of conducting metal such as copper, interrupted at the center, therefore making two poles.
A special case of Dipole antenna is the monopole antenna i.e. it is half of the dipole antenna. The radiation pattern above the grounded plane will be same as the half wave dipole antenna, however, the total power radiated is half that of a dipole; the field gets radiated only in the upper hemisphere region. The directivity of these antennas become double compared to the dipole antennas.
An antenna array (or array antenna) is a set of multiple connected antennas that work together as a single antenna, to transmit or receive radio waves. The individual antennas (called elements) are usually connected to a single receiver or transmitter by feedlines that feed the power to the elements in a specific phase relationship.
Yagi Uda Antenna:
Yagi-Uda antenna is the most commonly used type of antenna for TV reception over the last few decades. It is the most popular and easy-to-use type of antenna with better performance, which is famous for its high gain and directivity.The frequency range in which the Yagi-Uda antennas operate is around 30 MHz to 3GHz which belong to the VHF and UHF bands.
Log periodic Antenna:
The most common type of antenna used in wireless communication technology is a log-periodic dipole array fundamentally comprises a number of dipole elements. These dipole-array antennas reduce in size from the back end to the front end. The leading beam of this RF antenna comes from the smaller front end.
The element at the back end of the array is large in size with the half wavelength operating in a low-frequency range. The spacing of the element gets reduced towards the front end of the array wherein the smallest arrays are placed. During this operation, as the frequency varies, a smooth transition takes place along the array of the elements, which leads to form an active region.
An RF current carrying coil is given a single turn into a loop, can be used as an antenna called as loop antenna. The currents through this loop antenna will be in phase. The magnetic field will be perpendicular to the whole loop carrying the current.The frequency range of operation of loop antenna is around 300MHz to 3GHz. This antenna works in UHF range.
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